If you want to use 10 Gigabit Ethernet at home you have to make a choice what technology you want to use. There are about eleven different standards for 10 Gigabit Ethernet, 6 using fiber optics and about 5 for copper connections.
Products are still relatively costly though. A cheaper alternative might be to use IP-over-Infiniband.
At home you would rather choose multi-mode fibers (MMF) as they are cheaper and the distances at home are less than 300m long. (For long range communication you would use single-mode fibers – SMF.)
SMF cables are usually yellow, while MMF cables are orange or aqua.
10GBASE-SR (SR stands for "short range") 850 nm lasers and operates over multi-mode fiber.
Over deployed multi-mode fiber cabling, it has a maximum range of between 26 metres and 82 metres depending on cable type. Over a new 50 μm 2000 MHz·km OM3 multi-mode fiber, it has a maximum range of 300 metres.
10GBASE-SR delivers the lowest cost, lowest power and smallest form factor optical modules.
10GBASE-T provides 10 Gbit/s connections over unshielded or shielded twisted pair cables, over distances up to 100 metres.
power dissipation ~ 6 W
latency ~ 1 micro s